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The Present Participle

Page history last edited by David 14 years, 2 months ago

Present Participle


The present participle denotes an action ongoing at the time of the main verb. The present participle generally takes its object in the same case as the finite forms of the participle, though frequently the object is omitted. For example, þái waurd háusjandans 'those hearing the word' (Mark 4.18); Sa saijands waurd saijiþ 'The one sowing sows the word', equivalent to 'The sower sows the word' (Mark 4.14).


Some nouns, such as the nd-stem fijands 'enemy', were originally participles but have subsequently become frozen in a substantive role. These infrequently take objects in the accusative, instead generally employing the genitive. Compare the following contructions: þans fijands galgins Xristáus 'the enemies of the cross of Christ' (Philippians 3.18) vs. þáim fijandam izwis 'to those hating you' (Luke 6.27). Also note the following passage: aþþan ek qiþa izwis: frijóþ fijands izwarans, þiuþjáiþ þans wrikandans izwis, wáila táujáiþ þáim hatjandam izwis, jah bidjáiþ bi þans usþriutandans izwis 'But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless those cursing you, do good to those hating you, and pray for those abusing you' (Matthew 5.44).


These verbs are formed much like the present stem plus an ending. The verb is formed by adding the masculine nominative ending -ds to the infinitive verb form. When using present participles as adjectives, they decline like weak adjectives with a few differences.


Use the table below for adjectives.


Masculine Singular Plural
N -ds -dans
A -dan -dans
G -dins -dane
D -din -dam


Neuter Singular Plural
N -do -dona
A -do -dona
G -dins -dane
D -din -dam


Feminine Singular Plural
N -dei -deins
A -dein -deins
G -deins -deino
D -dein -deim




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