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Pronouns

Page history last edited by David 13 years, 5 months ago

The First and Second Person Pronouns

s = singular; d = dual; p = plural

 

Nominative  
1s ek (I)
2s þu (thou/you)
1d wit (we two)
2d jut (you two)
1p weis (we)
2p jus (you plural)

 

Accusative  
1s mek (me)
2s þek (thee)
1d ukkis (we two)
2d igqis (thee two)
1p unsis (us)
2p iswis (you)

 

Genitive  
1s meina (mine/my)
2s þeina (thine)
1d ukara (my two)
2d igqara (your two)
1p unsara (our)
2p iswara (your)

 

Dative  
1s mis (to me)
2s þus (thee)
1d ugkis (we two)
2d igqis (thee/you two)
1p unsis (us)
2p iswis (you)

The datives can also mean "from", "on", "in", or "with".

http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/gotol-2-X.html#Got02_GP08

 

Possessive Pronominal Adjectives

 

The possessive adjectives decline exclusively as strong adjectives (there are no weak forms of possessives). These forms are built from the genitive forms of the respective pronouns, with the addition of adjectival endings, e.g. ek 'I', with G sg. meina, gives adjectival *meina-s > meins 'my' (N. sg. masc.). The forms of meins 'my, mine' serve to illustrate the paradigm.

 

Possesive
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine

N Sg.

A

G

D

meins

meinana

meinis

meinamma

mein, meinata

mein, meinata

meinis

meinamma

meina

meina

meináizos

meinái

N Sg.

A

G

D

meinái

meinans

meináize

meináim

meina

meina

meináize

meináim

meinos

meinos

meináizo

meináim

 

The second person builds a possessive adjective þeins, and the reflexive pronoun has possessive *seins (as it points back to the subject of the clause, only oblique forms occur). The dual and plural forms of the personal pronouns also build possessives:

 

Person
Stem
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine

1 Sg.

2

reflex (Acc.)

meina-

þeina-

seina-

meins

þeins

seinana

meina, meinata

þeina, þeinata

seina, seinata

meina

þeina

seina

1 Du.

2

-

*ugkara-

igqara-

ugkar

igqar

ugkar

igqar

ugkara

igqara

1 Pl.

2

-

unsara-

izwara-

unsar

izwar

unsar

izwar

unsara

izwara

 

The reflexive possessive adjective *seins serves as a reflexive for any number, just like the pronoun itself. The dual possessive *unqar 'of us two' does not occur. Note that final -s (-z) drops after a short vowel followed by consonantal -r (cf. Section 6.2.2), hence the nominative forms of the dual and plural possessives lack final -s. The neuter nominative and accusative singular of the dual and plural possessives do not show the ending -ata. In all other forms, *ugkara- 'of us two', igqara- 'of you two', unsara- 'of us (all), our, ours' and izwara- 'of you (all), your, yours' follow the paradigm of meins.

http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/gotol-3-X.html#Got03_GP13_04

 

The third person pronouns have no corresponding possessive adjectives, using simply the genitive forms of the personal pronoun (singular is, is, izos; plural ize, *ize, izo) or of the demonstrative pronoun (singular þis, þis, þizos; plural þize, þize, þizo).

 

These adjectives are used more often than the 1st and 2nd person pronoun of the genitive case. These adjectives agree in case, gender, and number; and always receive strong adjectival declension. The following grid lists the nominative forms of these adjectives:

 

meins my
þeins your (singular)
ukkar our (dual)
ikkar your (dual)
unsar our (plural)
iswar your (plural)

 

The nominative masculine -s is lost after "r" following a short vowel.

 

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