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Fourth Weak Conjugation

Page history last edited by David 12 years, 6 months ago

The fourth weak conjugation is characterized by the suffix PIE *-nā- > PGmc *-nō- added to the verbal root. The verbs of this class are typically denominative or deverbative. Consider the following examples:

 

  Nominative
Stem
Meaning
Weak IV Infinitive
Meaning
Denominative
         
 

fulls

háuhs

weihs

fulla-

háuha-

weiha-

full

high

holy

fullnan

us-háuhnan

weihnan

become full

be glorified

be hallowed

  Strong Infin.
Past Part
     
Deverbative
         
 

andbindan

fraliusan

wakan

andbundans

fralusans

*wakans

unbind

lose

be awake

andbundnan

fralusnan

gawaknan

become unbound

be lost

keep awake

 

The verb fullnan 'to become full' serves to illustrate the forms of Class IV weak verbs. The forms are as follows.

 

Class IV
Active
    Mediopassive
 
  Indicative
Subjunctive
Imperative
Indicative
Subjunctive
Present
     

 

 

1 Sg

2

3

fullna

fullnis

fullniþ

fullnáu

fullnáis

fullnái

 

fulln

fullnadáu

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 Du

2

fullnos

fullnats

fullnáiwa

fullnáits

 

fullnats

   

1 Pl

2

3

fullnam

fullniþ

fullnand

fullnáima

fullnáiþ

fullnáina

fullnam

fullniþ

fullnandáu

-

-

-

-

-

-

Past
         

1 Sg

2

3

fullnóda

fullnódes

fullnóda

fullnódjáu

fullnódeis

fullnódi

     

1 Du

2

fullnódu

fullnóduts

fullnódeiwa

fullnódeits

     

1 Pl

2

3

fullnódum

fullnóduþ

fullnódun

fullnódeima

fullnódeiþ

fullnódeina

     
Infinitive fullnan        
Pres Part fullnands        
Past Part       -  

 

In the past tense, the forms of Class IV weak verbs are the same as those of Class II, except for the insertion of the -n- suffix. Mediopassive forms are lacking in for this class of verbs (not unexpectedly, given the intransitive nature of the verbs and their possible origin in the PIE middle voice). There are also no extant forms of past participles.

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