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First Strong Conjugation

Page history last edited by David 12 years, 7 months ago

http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/gotol-5-X.html#Got05_GP23

 

Strong verbs are characterized by vocalic alternation accompanying morphological change. This so-called ablaut pattern differs among verbs, but similarities are frequent enough that strong verbs fall into a small number of ablaut classes, the members of a given class sharing the same sequence of vocalic alternation. The particular sequence characterizing a given strong verb class is the result of a number of sound changes from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) to Proto-Germanic (PGmc), and from the latter to the respective daughter languages. The morpheme structure of the root in PIE uniquely characterizes the ablaut class to which a verb belongs; subsequent evolution into Germanic and the resulting daughter languages, however, has restructured this characterization. See this chart for an example of the evolution of a verb from PIE to the PGmc class I strong conjugation, and then gives examples of class I strong verbs from Gothic, and therefore WG.

 

Class I Ablaut Pattern

Class
Present
Past Sg.
Past Pl.
Past Part.

Ia

Ib

ei [ī]

ei [ī]

ái

ái

i

ai

i

ai

 

The difference between Classes Ia and Ib lies solely in the vowel of the past plural and participle stems. The change is conditioned by the consonant following the vowel. Generally the vowel i occurs, but this is replaced by ai when followed by h. Take for example the past participles stigans vs. þaihans.

 

The verb greipa 'seize', with prinicpal parts greipa -- gráip -- gripum -- gripans, serves to illustrate the forms of the first conjugation. The forms are as follows.

 

Class I
Active
  
Mediopassive
 
  Indicative
Subjunctive
Imperative
Indicitive
Subjunctive
Present
     

1 Sg.

2

3

greipa

greipis

greipiþ

greipáu

greipáis

greipái

 

greip

greipadáu

greipada

greipaza

greipada

greipáidáu

greipáizáu

greipáizáu

1 Dual

2

greipos

greipats

greipáiwa

greipáits

 

greipats

   

1 Pl.

2

3

greipam

greipiþ

greipand

greipáima

greipáiþ

greipáina

greipam

greipiþ

greipandáu

greipanda

greipanda

greipanda

greipáindáu

greipáindáu

greipáindáu

Past
     

1 Sg.

2

3

gráip

gráipt

gráip

gripjáu

gripeis

gripi

     

1 Dual

2

gripu

griputs

gripeiwa

gripeits

     

1 Pl.

2

3

gripum

gripuþ

gripun

gripeima

gripeiþ

gripeina

     
Infinitive greipan        
Pres. Part. greipands        
Past Part.       gripans  

 

 

 

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