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Distributive and Negative Pronouns and Adjectives

Page history last edited by David 14 years, 1 month ago
Distributives

The interrogative ƕaþar forms a distributive by addition of the particle -uh: ƕaþaruh 'each (of two)'. Only the dative masculine occurs, both alone (ƕaþarammēh) and in composition (áinƕaþarammēh 'to each one (of two)').

 

The pronoun ƕas, ƕa, ƕō also forms a distributive by suffixing -uh: ƕazuh, ƕah, ƕōh 'each, every'. The declension is as follows.

 

ƕazuh 'each'
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine

N SG

A

G

D

ƕazuh

ƕanóh

ƕizuh

ƕammeh

ƕah

ƕah

ƕizuh

ƕammeh

ƕóh

ƕóh

*ƕizózuh

*ƕizáih

N PL

A

 

ƕanzuh

   

* hypothetical, but implied.

 

The only plural form is the masculine accusative plural ƕanzuh. Before -uh, an s changes to z. The u of the suffix -uh drops after a long vowel or stressed a.

 

The adjective ƕarjis likewise forms a distributive by affixing -uh: ƕarjizuh 'each, every'. The declension is as follows.

 

ƕarjizuh 'each'
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine

N SG
A

G

D

ƕarjizuh

ƕarjanóh

ƕarjizuh

ƕarjammeh

ƕarjatóh

*ƕarjatóh

*ƕarjizuh

ƕarjammeh

ƕarjóh

ƕarjóh

*ƕarjizózuh

*ƕarjáih

* hypothetical, but implied.

 

This adjective occurs with the uninflected prefix áin- to form the compound áinƕarjizuh 'every one'. The attested forms are as follows.

 

áinƕarjizuh 'every one'
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine

N SG

A

G

D

áinƕarjizuh

áinƕarjanóh

áinƕarjizuh

áinƕarjammeh

áinƕarjatóh

 

áinƕarjóh

 

 

The stem ba- 'both' only survives in a few forms, naturally plural. The attested forms are as follows.

 

ba- 'both'
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine

N PL

A

G

D

bái, bajóþs

bans

 

báim, bajóþum

ba

ba

 

 

 

Negatives

The particle -hun is suffixed to forms of ƕas 'who', manna 'man', and áins 'one' to form indefinite pronouns, ƕashun, mannahun, áinshun. These always occur with the negative particle ni in the meaning 'no one, nothing, no, none'. The compound form of ƕas occurs only in the nominative singular masculine: ni ƕashun 'no one'. The compound forms of manna occur only in the masculine singular. The compound forms of áins occur at least in part for all genders. The attested forms of these pronouns are as follows.

 

-hun Compounds
Masculine
Masculine
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine

N SG

A

G

D

ƕashun

mannahun

mannanhun

manshun

manshun

áinshun

áinnóhun, áinóhun

áinishun

áinummehun

áinhun

áinhun

*áinishun

*áinummehun

áinóhun

áinóhun

*áináizóshun

*áináihun

* hypothetical, but implied.

 

Note that the first element of each compound declines, while only the -hun remains invariant. The base áins- declines according to the strong declension of blinds (Section 13.1), except that is has -e- or -ó- where blinds has a final -a. Note also the forms áin-(n)ó-hun (masc. acc.; compare blind-ana) and áin-umme-hun (masc. dat.; compare blind-amma). For the particle -hun, compare Sanskrit -ca-ná (where -na is a negative particle) in kás caná 'any one'. Note also -que in Latin quisque 'whoever'.

 

The feminine noun waíhts 'thing, matter' occurs with the negative ni 'no, not', as does a neuter form waíht, to express 'nothing' (Greek oudén or mēdén).

 

 

http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/gotol-5-X.html#Got05_GP21

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