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Numerals

Page history last edited by David 14 years, 2 months ago

 

Wistra-Gutisk Numerals

http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/gotol-5-X.html#Got05_GP22

 

Abstract

 

The Wistra-Gutisk numeral system derives from the Gothic alphabet, which closely resembles the Greek uncial alphabet of the 4th century CE. Where the Greek uncials proved insufficient, Roman or runic letters were borrowed. These alphabetic characters are also used to represent numerals. This system has perpetuated through time and is in use along side the Western Arabic numerals.

 

Rather than work with the Gothic alphabet itself, a transliteration using the Roman alphabet and four additional characters is applied: slash o (ø) as the zero place-holder, thorn (þ) to represent 9, hwair (ƕ) representing 700, and pi (π) to represent 900. Usually the zero place-holder and 900 are represented by o macron and san/sampi, respectively.  The apostrophe (’) is used for the keráia (pronounced ['kEr\aI@]) and the cedilla (¸) for the left keráia are used to differentiate numerals from possible word similarities. Zero does not need a keráia.

 

The following chart lists the cardinal, ordinal, numerical value, and transliterated letters, in that order.

 

wans; wanþs; 0 = ø Slash o (Alt 0248)     

áins; fruma (frumists); 1 = a’

twái; anþar; 2 = b’

þrija (neut.); þridja; 3 = g’

fidwór; 4 = d’

fimf; fimfta-; 5 = e’

saihs; saihsta; 6 = q’

sibun; 7 = z’

ahtáu; atuda; 8 = h’

niun; niunda; 9 = þ’

taihun; taihunda; 10 = i’

*áinlif (dat. áinlibim); 11 = ia’

twalif (dat. twalibim); 12 = ib’

13 = ig’

fidwórtaihun; 14 = id’

fimftaihun; fimftataihunda (dat. fimftataihundin); 15 = ie’

16 = iq’

17 = iz’

18 = ih’

19 = iþ’

twái tigjus; 20 = k’

*þreis tigjus (acc. þrins tiguns); 30 = l’

fidwór tigjus; 40 = m’

fimf tigjus; 50 = n’

saihs tigjus; 60 = j’

sibuntaihund; 70 = u’

ahtáutehund; 80 = p’

niuntehund (gen. niuntrhundis); 90 = Q’ or ϙ' Qoppa; Ϟ (Crtl+Alt990)

taíhuntēhund, taíhuntaíhund; 100 = r’

twa hunda; 200 = s’

þrija hunda; 300 = t’

400 = w’

fimf hunda; 500 = f’

600 = x’

700 = ƕ’ Hwair (Ctrl+Alt 0405)

800 = o’

niun hunda; 900 = π’ Pi (Alt 227); Ϡ (Crtl+Alt992)

þúsundi; 1000 = ¸a’

twós þúsundjos; 2000 = ¸b’

þreis þúsundjos; 3000 = ¸g’

 

The uncial pattern is repeated 1 to 999. For example, if you want to represent the number 123 you would add the following sequence:

 

    100 + 20 + 3 = rkg’

 

Other examples:

 

    500 + 40 + 5 = fme’ (545)

    90 + 5 = Qe’ (95)

 

Numerals 1,000 - 999,999

 

This group of numerals uses cedilla (¸) as the left keráia to signify the one thousands, ten thousands, and hundred thousands. The symbol is place before the number character to identify it is now among the thousands.

 

1000 = ¸a’

2000 = ¸b’

10,000 = ¸i’

100,000 = ¸r’

 

 To represent numbers from 1,000 to 999,999 the letters are reused. For example:

 

    1000 + 1 = ¸aa’

    5000 + 300 = ¸et’

    7000 + 700 + 70 + 7 = ¸zƕuz’

    900,000 + 90,000 + 9000 + 900 + 90 + 9 = ¸πQþ,πQþ’

 

Higher Numerals

 

Greek used the myriad (M’) from the old Attic numeral system. Its value is 10,000. This practice survives in the Gothic system, and thus the Wistra-Gutisk continues its use. M’ is only used in higher numerals.

 

The number of myriads is written above the myriad symbol, or in superscript to the left using the same annotations described previously. For purposes on the PBWorks page the number of myriads is placed in-line just before the M' symbol and in a smaller font size. For example:

 

     45,820,709 = 4582 x 10,000 + 709

 

     4585 = ¸dfpd  10,000 = M  709 = ƕ 9 = þ

 

     ¸dfpd + M + ƕ + þ

 

    ¸dfpbMƕþ’

 

Millions Billions Trillions?

 

The millions are calculated by multiplying the first power of myriad (10,000) to the number of myriad beginning with 100 (r).

 

1,000,000 would be 100 x 10,000 = rM’

5,000,000 would be 500 x 10,000 = fM’

10,000,000 would be 1000 x 10,000 = ¸a M’

100,000,000 would be 10,000 x 10,000 = MM’

 

The billions are calculated by multiplying the second power of myriad (100,000,000) to the number of myriad beginning with 10 (i).

 

1,000,000,000 would be 10 x 100,000,000 = iMM'

10,000,000,000 would be 100 x 100,000,000 = rMM'

100,000,000,000 would be 1000 x 100,000,000 = ¸aMM'

 

 

 

 

 

 

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